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How electric vehicle batteries work

15 Feb 2022

As we mentioned in one of our previous articles, lead-acid batteries have gradually been replaced by lithium-ion batteries. They have many advantages but what are they made of?
Let’s see how electric vehicle batteries work.

THE COMPOSITION OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

Electric vehicle batteries are made up of a set of cells, or accumulators, which are connected together in series or parallel. This makes it possible to increase the voltage of the battery pack or its capacity. This assembly of several cells has a real advantage, as it allows the battery to be adapted to many different usage profiles to obtain more or less power and/or range.

To go into detail, batteries in turn consist of cathodes, the positive (+) electrodes, and anodes, the negative (-) electrodes. Several families of cathodes are popular: NMC (Nickel, Manganese, Cobalt), NCA (Nickel, Cobalt, Aluminium), LTO (Lithium titanate), or LFP (Lithium Iron Phosphate). The anodes are usually made of graphite.

LFP chemistry, used in Batconnect batteries, has two advantages. It is the best operating safety on the market, particularly with regard to thermal runaway. It limits the risk of catching fire due to overloading or uncontrolled rapid recharging. It has a smaller carbon footprint than other technologies such as NMC, which requires the extraction of rare metals.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Everything is based on a reversible exchange of positive lithium ions between the cathodes and the anodes. This exchange takes place with the help of an electrolyte, an ionic conducting liquid, hence the name Lithium-Ion battery. Finally, when your battery is connected to your electric vehicle, the electrons stored in the anodes are released and move to the cathodes. This is the discharge phase of your battery, in other words the use phase. Conversely, when you recharge the battery of your electric vehicle, the electrons go the other way round and return to the anodes.

WHAT ABOUT BATCONNECT?

The batteries offered by Batconnect are Lithium Iron Phosphate LiFePO4 batteries.
Their composition and functioning are significantly the same. The major difference is that they are UN38.3 and CE certified. Two certifications that attest to the safety of the batteries and the thermal and chemical stability of lithium-ion. This means that you can enjoy your electric vehicle fully and safely.